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Conifers are used to decorate garden areas or personal plots. They look spectacular, complement landscape compositions, and are also unpretentious in care due to the peculiarities of the culture. Control over the development of conifers or shrubs continues for the first decade after planting. At this time, they need feeding. In addition, the owners of conifers can independently cultivate them to enrich their own collection. Cuttings of conifers in winter are successful for juniper, cypress, thuja and some varieties of spruce.
Pros and cons of breeding coniferous cuttings at home
To grow conifers, one of the selected schemes is used: they can reproduce by division, seeds, and also cuttings. Experts consider cuttings to be one of the most effective methods of culture propagation. The advantages of self-breeding by cuttings:
- the ability to get a copy of the selected mother plant
- ease of procedure;
- the ability to fully control the process.
The disadvantage of grafting may be the specific feature of the selected tree.
Thuja is an evergreen shrub that takes root well after cuttings. Young shoots completely repeat the varietal characteristics of the parent plant, therefore, the thuja is considered especially suitable for cuttings.
Juniper is one of the representatives of Cypress, which are undemanding and grow in different climatic conditions. Cuttings are suitable for tall varieties. Junipers spreading along the ground are propagated by layering.
Cypress is an evergreen ephedra that is propagated by cuttings and layering. It takes root well in the soil, it is almost never sent for growing, during the winter the shoots are able to develop a strong root system.
Fir, varietal species of pine and sequoia are almost impossible to root on their own. For breeding in nurseries, grafting and layering are used.
Information! For grafting, adult plants are chosen, the age of which does not exceed 10 years. Old trees form shoots with low germination rates.
When is it better to propagate conifers by cuttings
Cutting of shoots from the mother tree is permissible at any time of the year. The preservation of the genetic material does not depend on the timing of cuttings. Experts are of the opinion that the best time for cuttings is winter. In the first decade, the processes of sap flow are activated in trees.
During the period that passes from the moment of harvesting before winter to the beginning of planting, conifers have time to take root well. In summer, strong lignified seedlings are planted on the site.
Reproduction of conifers by cuttings before winter
Harvesting of conifers is carried out before the onset of winter. This increases the plant's chances of a successful spring-summer planting.
To carry out the cuttings of conifers before winter, choose the upper shoots or tops. The length should not exceed 20 cm. After cutting, the cuttings are cleaned of needles, leaving only a part of the bark. If in some places the bark is separated, then it is completely removed.
Rooting of conifers by cuttings before winter is possible in several ways or by mixing them:
- with water;
- on the sand;
- under the film.
The simplest and most effective way is considered to be rooting conifers with water. It is not suitable for all types of plants. Shoots of pines, fir, cypress trees take root poorly by water. Thuja and juniper sprout quickly enough.
Reproduction of conifers by cuttings in autumn
It is possible to grow conifers by cuttings in the fall. Autumn cuttings differ little from winter ones. When using the soil, the shoots are left on the terrace or veranda, before the onset of winter they are brought into a warmer room.
Reproduction of conifers by cuttings in summer
For summer grafting of conifers, the rooting method in boxes is suitable. In summer, shoots need to be watered frequently due to the hot weather. In the fall, they are transferred to the garden bed or taken indoors for the winter to be planted next season.
Reproduction of conifers by cuttings in spring
Spring cuttings of conifers are very rare. Experts believe that this period is not suitable for rooting. Shoots spend the summer outdoors, in winter they need room heat.
Rules for harvesting coniferous cuttings
The result of breeding conifers by cuttings in winter depends on the choice of material. When examining an ephedra, suitable branches are selected based on the following characteristics.
- Shoots should not be younger than 1 year, while branches of 3 years of age are considered the best option for breeding before winter.
- Shoots should be outwardly developed, look strong, not have any flaws.
- The length of shoots for junipers, cypresses, thujas should not exceed 15 cm, the length for spruce and fir - up to 10 cm.
A cloudy day is chosen for grafting, the cut is carried out in the morning. In order to have a good idea of the sequence of actions during the propagation of conifers by cuttings, many breeders watch videos with master classes of specialists. This is justified for the reason that the success of further rooting depends on the quality of the cuttings and the choice of the shoot.
How to root ephedra from a cuttings
Rooting, which is carried out before winter, consists of several successive stages.
- First, the stalk is cut or broken off. In this case, a piece of wood with remnants of bark should remain at the base.
- A fresh cut is powdered with a root-type biostimulant. This will help the cuttings take root faster.
- A suitable container with high sides is chosen for the seedling, then it is filled with wet sand. Before planting, it is spilled with a weak solution of manganese.
- A depression is made in the sand. It is convenient to use a wooden stick with a diameter of at least 6 - 8 cm.
- Shoots are buried in holes at a distance of 3 - 5 cm from each other.
- The soil is compacted so that no voids remain inside.
- The container is covered with plastic wrap or plastic cap. This helps create a greenhouse effect inside the container. Thanks to this, the soil will be timely moistened.
Landings are removed in shaded areas, where they constantly maintain a temperature regime of at least +22 ° C.
Many people use rooting cuttings in the water before winter.
- The prepared material is released into the root growth biostimulator solution for 12 hours.
- At the same time, sphagnum moss is being prepared. It is soaked in water, then the excess water is squeezed out.
- Moss is laid out on plastic wrap up to 10 cm wide and up to 1 m long.
- Cuttings are placed on the moss so that the tip of the scion is visible above the tape.
- The film with moss is rolled up with a snail, pressing it tightly to the surface.
- The prepared snail is tied with a tourniquet and placed in a bag with a little water.
This design can be hung from the window like a flowerpot. After rooting, the seedlings are planted in prepared soil.
Growing conifers from cuttings
Further care for conifers includes several rules:
- After planting for rooting, the shoots need regular moisture. They are sprayed with warm water once a week. The land should not be waterlogged or dry.
- For the full development of a culture, a temperature regime at the borders of +18 to +22 ° is necessary. Frost-resistant species will feel comfortable at temperatures from +16 ° C.
- Shoots need regular ventilation. To do this, the boxes are opened for several hours daily, gradually increasing the length of time.
- Plants are fed with special preparations for conifers 1 - 2 times per winter.
- To saturate the soil with air, the soil is regularly loosened.
Many breeders plant conifers after rooting in closed greenhouses. It should be borne in mind that young plants at this stage need warmed up soil. The soil index should not be lower than +25 ° C, the air temperature inside the room can fluctuate from +18 to +20 ° C. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the humidity: at this stage, its indicator should be higher than usual.
There are several signs by which you can determine that mistakes were made in caring for conifers:
- Redness or fluttering of the needles indicates the presence of a fungal infection (this can be caused by an excess of moisture or planting in soil that has not been disinfected);
- Scattering of formed young needles is a signal of a lack of nutrients, possible acidification of the soil.
Planting conifers by cuttings in open ground
Despite the fact that when conifers are propagated by cuttings for the winter, the shoots have time to harden enough, some of them need growing. This is the name for planting on open ground for a period of time that passes before planting in a permanent place of growth.
Sometimes young conifers can be growing for 2 - 3 years. For this, they choose protected areas that can be additionally covered in winter, during frosts.
There is another way to grow coniferous seedlings - in a school. It is suitable for growing conifers from cuttings that have been obtained in large quantities before winter.
On the site of a school with dimensions of 1.5 by 1.5 m, up to 100 copies can be planted. About 30 - 35 pieces will be ready for planting in a permanent place of growth.
Young coniferous plants are transplanted to the school by the transshipment method. If they were rooted with moss, then it will be enough to separate a part of the moss and bury it in the prepared hole.
After disembarkation, arcs are pulled over the shoots, covered with a special industrial material. This is necessary to protect from direct sun rays, which can provoke burns during the adaptation stage, as well as to protect against through winds.
For planting in a permanent place, strong coniferous seedlings with a developed root system are chosen. Before that, 2 - 3 winters may pass after grafting. This is not surprising, because we are talking about growing trees that will exist for about 30-40 years or more. After planting in an area where trees will grow constantly, control over growth and development is noticeably reduced. Trees need regular, but not frequent watering, as well as 2-3 additional fertilizing per year.
Cutting conifers in winter is an approach that provides a guaranteed result. Shoot formation before the beginning of winter has its own characteristics, this is due to the movement of sap through the tree. Therefore, cuttings separated from the mother plant in winter are able to root quickly and easily.