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One of the main scourges of gardeners is the appearance of aphids on plants. If you miss the moment and allow these insects to breed, you won't have to wait for the harvest. With garden crops, things are a little easier, since a stunted plant can be completely watered with insecticide. If aphids start on a tree, it is unlikely that it will be possible to get rid of it completely. For example, it is possible to process whole cherries from aphids only from some kind of lifting mechanism. This is a tall tree and parasites will almost certainly remain on the upper branches.
Why did aphids appear on the cherry
In general, the answer is obvious: he wants to eat. The food of this large aphid superfamily is plant sap. In nature, there are 5,000 species of aphids, and they all parasitize vegetation. If all these insects could feed on the sap of any plant, there would be no flora left on Earth. Fortunately, aphid species are relatively specialized. On stone trees, the most common parasite is Myzus Cerasi or cherry aphid.
Much more interesting is the question "how does aphid appear on cherries." After all, if you look at these insects, it turns out that they are wingless.
There are three ways that pests appear on trees:
- insects hatched from eggs left on the branches of a cherry or other crop in the fall;
- ants brought their "cattle" to "graze";
There are very few winged individuals on the plants, since they are fertilized females. They can no longer remain on the old tree, they must expand their habitat. After fertilization, the female simply flies off to another plant.
Winged females are not numerous in the colony, they quickly fly away to a new place
What does aphid look like
These are small insects, the usual size of which is 2-3 mm. Although there are species in the superfamily, representatives of which grow up to 7 mm. The mouth apparatus of these insects is of a piercing type. They pierce the surface of leaves or young shoots with them and drink the juice.
The length of the proboscis differs in aphids. In some species, the oral apparatus can be very large. This is due to the feeding habits of insects.
In all types of aphids, there are wingless and winged forms. The former can also reproduce, but it ensures the reproduction of the population on the original host plant. Wingless females are unfertilized and reproduce by parthenogenesis.
After fertilization, the female grows wings, and she flies away. This is how the host plants change. Myzus cerasi or cherry aphid most often appears on cherries.
A sexually mature unfertilized female of cherry aphid has a pear-shaped, wide body. The head is at the narrow end of the body. The length of the wingless adult is 2-2.4 mm. The color is black on top and brown on the abdomen. In immature individuals, the back color is dark brown. The body of the cherry aphid is shiny.
The dark green antennae are divided into 6 segments, with a total length of about 1 mm. Antennae grow from wide frontal tubercles that form a groove.
Fertilized winged specimen is brilliant black. Its body length is 2.4 mm. The flying female lays black oval eggs.
It may seem that the color unmasks black aphids on green cherry leaves. It is so indeed. But this color hides insects well on the dark bark of cherry branches. The same applies to insect eggs.
Most common form of aphid: viviparous unfertilized female
The distribution area of these insects excludes only those regions where its main forage crops are not grown:
- South America;
- South and Central Africa;
- Southeast Asia.
Cherry aphids cause the greatest harm in the southern regions of the former USSR, which stretch along a line from Moldova to Central Asia.
Black aphid is an oligophagous, and eats not only cherries. Her diet also includes other stone fruit garden crops:
Black aphids give preference to cherries, as a relative of cherries. But he will not give up other fruit plants either.
In addition to cultivated trees, cherry aphids feed on:
- soft bedstraw;
- eyebright straight;
- tenacious bedstraw;
- Veronica officinalis;
- spring cog.
The presence of aphids on wild plants would be of little concern if the species had no flying females. If there is any of the listed herbs affected by aphids near the garden, there is no doubt that insects will soon appear on garden trees.
Pest life cycle
The life cycle of black aphids begins in early spring, when the first generation of insects emerges from overwintered eggs. Eggs overwinter at the ends of annual shoots near the buds. And the first larvae appear simultaneously with bud break. Aphids feed on the sap of young leaves, which is why the latter turn black and dry out. During the season, several generations of pests are replaced on the tree.
Since during parthenogenesis, already living small copies of adults are born, 14 generations can be born during the warm season.
Light and small individuals - young aphids
Signs and causes of aphids on cherry leaves
With a daily inspection of young cherry shoots, it may be possible to notice the appearance of pests at an early stage. But usually gardeners find aphids when they are already comfortably placed on a tree:
- shoots of this year are strewn with black insects;
- whole colonies of insects are found on the back of the leaves;
- leaves curl and turn black;
- the flowers begin to crumble.
The first appearance of aphids is possible even in early spring, when the flower buds of the cherry are just beginning to bloom. These are the pests that emerged from the overwintered eggs. The second wave will be after the females of the first generation grow up and are fertilized. Around the same time, ants can bring insects to trees. They also want sweets. And the excrement secreted by aphids contains a lot of sugar. Further pests can appear at any time. It all depends on how quickly the winged female reaches the tree.
Control measures for aphids on cherries
The first time you need to process cherries from aphids is in early spring. But not when the trunks of trees are usually whitewashed, getting rid of overwintered bugs, but a little later: at the time of bud opening. At an earlier time, only those preparations that act on the eggs of pests can be used. These are usually strong chemical insecticides. In early spring it is possible. Later, before processing cherries from aphids, you need to pay attention to the degree of ripeness of the berries.
How to get rid of aphids on cherries with folk remedies
Most chemical insecticides are long lasting. Many of them are systemic, that is, they can penetrate into plant tissues. When trying to drink the juice, the aphids simultaneously absorb the poison. This is almost ideal if you sprinkle aphid cherries with such insecticides in early spring, when sap flow begins.
But during the ripening of the crop, it is undesirable to use such preparations, although the manufacturer assures consumers of the safety of modern insecticides. At the stage of half ripeness of berries, aphids on cherries are best treated with folk remedies:
- tar soap;
- soda ash;
- decoctions of aromatic herbs.
The practice of gardeners shows that soda ash is the best option. But other recipes have a right to exist. The dosage in all recipes is for a bucket of water.
Attention! Pay special attention to the underside of the leaves.
On a leaf, aphids cluster closer to the central vein
Half a bar of laundry soap is grated and dissolved in hot water. The resulting soap solution is poured into a bucket of water and a 100 ml bottle of 10% ammonia is added thereto.
It is necessary to process black aphids that have settled on cherries twice with a break a week. Particular attention is paid to the underside of the leaves.
If it is not there, you can use the usual household one. Tar is more effective because of its smell. Otherwise, there is no difference between detergents. The recipe is the same as with ammonia, but without the latter.
These funds do not kill aphids, they only scare them away. Therefore, the effectiveness of herbal decoctions and infusions is very low. But if you need to do something urgently, and only herbs are at hand, you can use this method. For decoctions use:
- St. John's wort;
- dandelion leaves;
A stronger and at least slightly poisonous remedy: an infusion of potato or tomato tops. It can also be made with fresh dandelion leaves or tobacco. For infusion, take equal parts of herbs and water. Fresh chopped greens are poured with water and left to infuse for a day so that the plants release poisonous juice into the water. Then the infusion is filtered and the cherries are sprayed.
Pour 0.5 kg of ordinary wood ash into a bucket of water and leave for 3 days. Remember to strain before spraying the trees.
Crush the head of garlic and add a liter of water. Insist 5 days. Use diluted: 50 g of infusion in a bucket of water. Hours 2 will definitely work.
Garlic can be found in any home
Stir 100 g of mustard powder in a bucket of water. Spray the cherries with the resulting mixture. For better adhesion of mustard to the leaves, you can add soap to the solution.
Milk with iodine
You will need a bottle of iodine and half a glass of milk. The ingredients are diluted in a liter of water and the resulting solution is sprayed on plants from aphids. Considering the size of the cherry tree, a lot of solution is required.
It is sold in utility departments as a substitute for kitchen utensils. Experienced gardeners find that using a soda ash solution is the best way to get rid of aphids during the harvest. Since soda is used for washing dishes, it can be used even on already ripe cherries. The preparation method is also simple: soda is diluted in water. Each gardener has its own proportions. Some use 3 tbsp. l. on a bucket of water. Others believe that you cannot spoil porridge with butter, and add the same 3 tbsp. in a liter of water.
All these folk methods allow you to get rid of aphids on cherries in the summer during the ripening of the crop. Until it will be possible to use stronger drugs. Plus, folk remedies are safe for human health.
Processing cherries from aphids with biological products
Biological products do not destroy aphids on trees immediately, as it happens when spraying with chemical insecticides. But their plus is that they are harmless to humans and they can be used even a few days before harvesting. Minus: biological products are easily washed away by rain. But after the rain, you definitely don't have to worry about the presence of an insecticide. Biologics include:
- Fitoverm: impact on aphids 10-12 hours after application.
- Entobacterin: the effect is similar to Fitoverm. It can be applied 5 days before harvesting. The best result is shown at an air temperature of 28-30 ° C, that is, it is best to spray trees at the height of summer. At lower temperatures, it is necessary to increase the concentration of the insecticide.
- The arrow with the active ingredient bitoxibacillin is harmless to warm-blooded animals. The insecticide begins to work 2 days after spraying;
- The drug 30-plus is exactly what it is called. Its active ingredient is an emulsion of vaseline oil, which blocks the spiracles aphids. The advantage of this insecticide is that it is not washed off by rain. Moreover, vaseline oil is not poisonous at all. It can be applied at any time. Minus: the emulsion will not reach the aphids inside the folded sheet.
Biologicals are a good and reliable alternative to folk methods for the destruction of aphids.
You can also attract predatory insects that feed on aphids to your garden.
How to treat aphids on cherries with chemicals
All chemical insecticides can be applied no earlier than 20 days before harvest. The drugs give the best effect in the early stages of the growing season. To almost completely get rid of black aphids on cherries, the first spraying should be done at the beginning of sap flow. And it is necessary to use systemic drugs that can penetrate into plant tissues. The larvae that hatch from the eggs will die either upon direct contact with an insecticide, or when trying to drink juice.
Of the chemicals used:
- imidacloprid: neonicotinoid class, intestinal action, systemic;
- malathion / malathion: reliable insecticide against aphids, but very toxic to humans, non-systemic;
- thiamethoxam: neonicotinoid class, intestinal action, systemic;
- alpha-cypermethrin: pyrethroid class, enteric, lasts up to 2 weeks if it has not rained;
- beta-cypermethrin: pyrethroid class, enteric;
- deltamethrin: pyrethroid class, enteric.
These insecticides can hardly be found on sale under their real names. These are usually active ingredients in registered trademarks. Imidacloprid is sold under the names: Biotlin, Confidor Extra, Tanrek.
Karbofos can be found under the brands: Prophylactin, Aliot.
Thiamethoxam is one of the most favorite drugs for gardeners: Aktara, Voliam Flexia, Angio Forte.
Other insecticides do not have a wide variety of brands. Alpha-cypermethrin - Neofral, beta-cypermethrin - Kinmix, deltamethrin - Decis Profi.
How to remove aphids from cherries mechanically
Mechanical methods for removing aphids from cherries include:
- breaking off infected shoots;
- washing off aphids from the crown of a tree with a strong water jet;
- the use of anti-ant belts.
It is impossible to completely remove aphids from cherries in such ways. You can only reduce its concentration on one plant. Anti-ant belts will not allow ants to bring their "cows" to the trees, but they will not protect them from flying aphids.
Moreover, this belt will not help against aphids on felt cherry. Today this plant belongs to the genus plums, but it is a shrub 1.5-2 m high.Sometimes felt cherry grows up to 3 m.
On felt cherry, it is convenient to destroy aphids by breaking off the affected shoots. It is also convenient for spraying.
From tall cherry trees, pests will have to be knocked down with a jet of water. But along with insects, the entire crop falls on the ground. However, with a high degree of probability, it will be just already possible not to worry about him. It will not ripen anyway, since the aphids will drink all the juice necessary for normal fruiting. It's good if you can save the tree itself.
It is better to cut off twisted leaves immediately.
It is better to get rid of aphids by immediately applying a set of measures. To prevent the ants from bringing their "livestock" to the branches, you need to put trapping belts on the cherry trunks and regularly renew the adhesive surface. Branches in the spring and leaves in the summer should be regularly sprayed with insecticides or insect repellants. It will not be superfluous to weed weeds, which also serve as a forage base for aphids. It is necessary to remove already dying, twisted leaves by hand, as insects are hiding there.
How to properly treat aphid cherries
For the correct processing of cherries, you need to follow some rules. This includes not only choosing a drug depending on the season, but also checking the weather forecast, and observing safety measures.
When can you treat aphid cherries
The first time the cherries are processed in the spring, when the snow has not really melted yet.Choose an oil-based insecticide to prevent larvae from hatching from the eggs. Such preparations are poorly washed off with water and can last a long time until the snow melts and frost with frost is possible.
Chemical insecticides can also be used during the cherry blossom season. At this time, it is better to use long-acting systemic drugs.
Once the berries have emerged, chemical insecticides can be used while the cherry is still green. After the reddening of the fruit, it is more advisable to switch to biological products, and shortly before harvesting to use folk remedies. The latter will have to be applied weekly until the crop is harvested.
After picking cherries, closer to autumn, you can again switch to systemic insecticides. In late autumn, it makes no sense to apply anything like that. You just need to clean the trees from pieces of old bark and carry out the usual autumn procedures.
Personal protective measures
When processing cherries with folk remedies, protection is not particularly required, since all these substances are in the kitchen of any housewife. But when spraying trees with chemical insecticides, especially karbofos, protection is already necessary. Today it is not difficult to buy a full chemical protection suit.
Attention! Work with karbofos should be carried out only in such clothes.
The rest of the insecticides do not require such powerful protection, but the required minimum is a respirator mask, goggles and gloves. At the same time, cypermethrins are moderately toxic to mammals.
This "dress code" is acceptable when spraying cherries with folk remedies, but completely unsuitable when working with industrial insecticides
Cherries need to be processed in dry weather, having previously checked the weather forecast. It is necessary that there is no rain for the next 3 days. Otherwise, the water will wash away the insecticides. Time of day for processing: early morning or evening. At this time, flying aphids can no longer rise into the air and will also be affected by the insecticide.
The dosage of industrial drugs is indicated on the packaging. Depending on the type of insecticide, both the dosage and the frequency of treatment may differ. Folk remedies do not have strict dosage norms, and the frequency is at least once a week.
It is impossible to get rid of aphids in the garden forever. Also, you cannot destroy it using only one way of fighting. To radically reduce the number of aphids in the garden, a set of measures is needed:
- regular removal of root growth;
- cleaning the trunk and branches of a cherry in the fall from pieces of dead bark;
- sanitary pruning of trees;
- spraying cherries in early spring with preparations with an oily consistency, the use of diesel fuel or kerosene is permissible;
- control of the ant population and monitoring of their movement in the trees: using trapping belts;
- after the appearance of the first larvae, the cherries are treated with insecticides in order to prevent aphids from growing to sexual maturity. The so-called "green cone spraying";
- regular inspection of all plants;
- when aphids appear on the upper branches of cherries, washing the trees with water;
- regular weeding of weeds, on which aphids can also settle.
But even with careful prevention, you should not relax. Single individuals will not cause much harm, but aphids also carry viruses that are much more difficult to cure.
Prevention of the appearance of aphids by treating cherries with an insecticide in early spring
It is necessary to process cherries from aphids several times per season. Insects reproduce quickly and use the wind to fly long distances. Aphids can appear on any day during the entire growing season. Insecticides are chosen depending on the ripening period of the crop.